Federation Cynologique International
FCI-Standard N°50 /06.11.1996 / GB
Sledge dog for heavy loads, water dog.
CLASSIFICATION FCI: Group 2 Pinscher and Schnauzer Type-Molossian and
Swiss Mountain and Cattle Dogs.
Section 2.2 Molossian Type, Mountain Dogs Without working trial.
SHORT HISTORICAL SURVEY: The breed originated in the island of
Newfoundland from dogs indigenous and the big black bear dog introduced by
the Vikings after the year 1100. With the advent of European fishermen a
variety of new breeds helped to shape and reinvigorate the breed, but the
essential characteristics remained. When the colonization of the island
began in 1610, the Newfoundland Dog was already largely in possession of his
proper morphology and natural behaviour. These features allowed him to
withstand the rigours of the extreme climate and sea's adversity while
pulling heavy loads on land or serving as water and lifeguard dog.
The Newfoundland is massive, with powerful body, well muscled and well
coordinated in his movements.
The length of the body from the point of shoulders to the point of buttock
is greater than the height at the withers. The body is compact. The body of
the bitch may be slightly longer and is less massive than that of the dog.
The distance from the withers to the underside of the chest is slightly
greater than the distance from the underside of the chest to the ground
BEHAVIOUR AND TEMPERAMENT:
The Newfoundland's expression reflects benevolence and softness. Dignified,
joyful and creative, he is known for his sterling gentleness and serenity.
Massive. The head of the bitch follows the same general conformation as the
male's one, but is less massive.
Skull: Broad, with slightly arched crown and strongly developed occipital
Stop: Evident, but never abrupt.
Nose: Large, well pigmented, nostrils well developed. Colour: Black
on black and white and black dogs, brown on brown dogs.
Muzzle: Definitely square, deep and moderately short, covered with
short, fine hair and free from wrinkles. The corners of the mouth are
evident, but not excessively pronounced.
Bite: Scissors or level bite
Relatively small, moderately deep set; they are wide apart and show no haw.
Colour: Dark brown in black and white and black, lighter shades permitted in
Ears: Relatively small, triangular with rounded tips, well set back on
the side of the head and close lying. When the ear of the adult dog is
brought forward, it reaches to the inner corner of the eye on the same side.
NECK: Strong, muscular, well set in the shoulders, long enough to
permit dignified head carriage . The neck should not show excessive dewlap.
BODY: Bone structure is massive throughout. Viewed from the side, the
body is deep and vigorous.
Top line: Level and firm from the withers to the croup.
Loin: Strong and well muscled.
Croup: Broad, sloping at an angle of about 30°
Chest: Broad, full and deep, with good spread of ribs.
Abdomen and underline: Almost level and never tucked up.
The Forelegs are straight and parallel also when the dog is walking or
Very well muscled and well laid back.
Elbows: Close to the chest.
Pasterns: Slightly sloping.
Forefeet: Large and proportionate to the body, well rounded and
tight, with firm and compact toes. Webbing of toes is present.
Because driving power for pulling loads, swimming or covering ground
efficiently is largely dependent upon the hindquarters, the rear structure
of the Newfoundland is of prime importance. The pelvis has to be strong,
broad and long.
Wide and muscular.
Stifle: Well bent, but not so as to give a crouching appearance.
Lower thighs: Strong and fairly long.
Hocks: Relatively short, well let down and well apart, parallel to
each other; they turn neither in nor out.
Hind feet: Firm and tight. Dewclaws, if present, should have been
The tail acts as a rudder when the Newfoundland is swimming; therefore it is
strong and broad at the base. When the dog is standing, the tail hangs down
with, possibly, a little curve at the tip; reaching to or slightly below the
hocks. When the dog is in motion or excited, the tail is carried straight
out with slight upward curve, but never curled over the back nor curved
inward between the legs.
The Newfoundland moves with good reach of the forelegs and strong drive of
the hindquarters, giving the impression of effortless power. A slight roll
of the back is natural. As the speed increases, the dog tends to single
track with topline remaining level.
HAIR: The Newfoundland has a water resistant double coat. The outer
coat is moderately long and straight with no curl. A slight wave is
permissible. The undercoat is soft and dense, more dense in winter than in
summer, but always found to some extent on the croup and chest. The hair on
the head, muzzle and ears is short and fine. The front and rear legs are
feathered. The tail is completely covered with long, dense hair, but does
not form a flag. Trimming and scissoring are not encouraged.
COLOR: Black, white and black and brown.
Black: The traditional colour is black. The colour has to be even as
much as possible, but a slight tinge of sunburn is permissible. White
markings on chest, toes and/or tip of tail are permissible.
White and black: This variety is of historical significance for the
breed. The preferred pattern of markings is black head with, preferably, a
white blaze extending onto the muzzle, black saddle with even markings and
black croup and upper tail. The remaining parts are to be white and can show
a minimum of ticking
Brown: The brown colour goes from chocolate to bronze. White markings
on chest, toes and/or tip of tail are permissible
White and black dogs and brown dogs are to be shown in the same class as
SIZE AND WEIGHT:
The average height at the withers is:
For adult males 71 cm (28 Inches);
For adult bitches 66 cm (28 inches).
The average weight is:
Approximately 68 kg for males.
Approximately 54 kg for bitches.
Large size is desirable, but is not to be favoured over symmetry, general
soundness, power of the structure and correct gait.
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the
seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact
proportion to its degree
- General appearance: Legginess, lack of substance.
- General bone structure: sluggish appearance, fine bone.
- Character: aggressiveness, shyness.
- Head: Narrow
- Muzzle: Snipey or long
- Flews: Pronounced.
- Eyes: Round, protruding, yellow eyes, showing pronounced haw.
- Back: Roached, slack or swayed back.
- Tail: Short, long, kink tail, curled tip.
- Forequarters: Down in pastern, splayed toes, toeing in or out, lack
of webbing between toes
- Hindquarters: Straight stifles, cowhocks, barrel legs, pigeon toes.
- Gait/Movement: Mincing, shuffling, crabbing, too close moving,
weaving, crossing over in front, toeing-out or distinctly toeing-in in
front, hackney action, pacing.
-Hair: Completely open coat. Lack of undercoat.
- Bad temperament
- Overshot or undershot bite, wry mouth.
- Short and flat coat.
- Markings of any other colour than white on a black or brown dog.
- Any other colour than black or white and black or brown.
NB Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended
into the scrotum.
Newfoundland Club of America, Illustrated Guide: